Philip Rubin, Chief Executive Officer emeritus and former Senior Scientist at Haskins Laboratories, is currently a Senior Advisor to the President of Haskins. He is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Surgery, Otolaryngology, at the Yale University School of Medicine, a Research Affiliate in the Department of Psychology at Yale, and a Fellow at Yale’s Trumbull College. From 2012 through February 2015, Rubin was the Principal Assistant Director for Science in the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in the Executive Office of the President of the United States, where he also served as Assistant Director for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, led the White House neuroscience initiative, and was a senior advisor on national policy. During that period of time he was also a Senior Advisor in the Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences directorate at the National Science Foundation (NSF). He is the former co-chair of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Committee on Science, with the Directors of the NIH and NSF, and co-chair of the interagency Common Rule Modernization Working Group.
Union High School, Union, New Jersey, 1967
B.A., Brandeis University (Psychology and Linguistics), 1971
M.A., University of Connecticut, (Experimental Psychology), 1973
Ph.D., University of Connecticut (Experimental Psychology), 1975
Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 1975-76
Research Staff, Haskins Laboratories, 1975-2015
Research Affiliate, Department of Psychology, Yale University,
Vice-President, Haskins Laboratories, 1992-2015
Professor Adjunct, Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine,
Chief Operating Officer, Haskins Laboratories, 1998-2004
Director, Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, NSF, 2000-2003
Chief Executive Officer, Haskins Laboratories, 2004-2015
Senior Advisor, Social, Behavioral, and Economics Sciences directorate,
National Science Foundation, 2012-2015
Assistant Director for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences,
White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, 2012-2015
Principal Assistant Director for Science, White House Office of Science
and Technology Policy, 2012-2015
Senior Advisor, National Policy, Executive Office of the President,
Acoustical Society of America
American Association for the Advancement of Science
American Psychological Association
Association for Psychological Science
Linguistic Society of America
National Academy of Public Administration
Member:Cognitive Science Society
International Speech Communication Association
International Society of Ecological Psychology
Philosophical Society of Washington
Society for Neuroscience
Founding Chairman of AVISA (the Auditory-Visual Speech Association)
My major theoretical interest has been in understanding the cognitive and biological bases of human perception and performance. I particularly am interested in how complex, human behavior is organized and evolves over time, and also in the relationship between perception and production. My colleagues and I have focused on human communication and language, which bridges the cognitive and biological domains. A long-standing concern of mine has been in understanding how language and cognition are shaped by physiological and ecological considerations, a perspective that has come to be known as embodied cognition. A significant portion of my career has been devoted to the development of tools that have helped other scientists in studying these issues and also helped to shape new theoretical approaches and ways to think about such problems.
My research activities have been focused in a variety of areas. One project involves participation in the development, by a large group of Haskins Laboratories researchers, of a computational model of speech production. This project combines a linguistic-gestural model; a nonlinear model of the control of multi-articulator systems (arms, tongues, etc.); and the Haskins vocal tract model (ASY). My most recent contribution has centered around collaboration on the development and continuing generalization (CASY) of our articulatory speech synthesis model. My interest in modeling aspects of the speech production process has been extended to the area of audio-visual speech, which has involved a collaboration with Eric Vatikiotis-Bateson and his colleagues. This research focuses on the perceptual evaluation of realistic computer-generated AV simulations of speakers, driven by actual acquired physiological data. Eric and I also developed the Talking Heads website.
Another line of research of long standing is my continuing collaboration with Robert Remez at Barnard College. This research involves the use of the sinewave synthesis program (SWS) that I developed as a tool for exploring temporal patterning in speech perception, the characteristics of normal conversational speech, and speaker identity.
Rubin, P., Turvey, M. & Van Gelder, P. (1976). Initial phonemes are detected faster in spoken words than in spoken nonwords. Perception and Psychophysics, 19, 394-398. (PDF)
Fowler, C. A., Rubin, P. E., Remez, R. E., & Turvey, M. T. (1980). Implications for speech production of a general theory of action. In B. Butterworth (Ed.), Language Production, Vol. I: Speech and Talk (pp. 373-420). New York: Academic Press. (PDF)
Kelso, J. A. S., Holt, K. G., Rubin, P., & Kugler, P. N. (1981). Patterns of human interlimb coordination emerge from the properties of non-linear, limit-cycle oscillatory processes: theory and data. Journal of Motor Behavior, 13, 226-261.
Browman, C. P., Goldstein, L., Kelso, J. A. S., Rubin, P. E., & Saltzman, E. (1984). Articulatory synthesis from underlying dynamics. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 75, S22.
Saltzman, E., Rubin, P. E., Goldstein, L., & Browman, C. P. (1987). Task- dynamic modeling of interarticulator coordination. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 82, S15.
Remez, R. E. & Rubin, P. E. (1990). On the perception of speech from time- varying attributes: Contributions of amplitude variation. Perception & Psychophysics, 48, 313-325. (PDF)
Remez, R.E., Rubin, P.E., Berns, S.M., Pardo, J.S. & Lang, J.M. (1994). On the perceptual organization of speech. Psychological Review, 101, 129-156. (PDF)
Rubin, Philip E. (1995). HADES: A Case Study of the Development of a Signal System. In R. Bennett, S. L. Greenspan & A. Syrdal (Eds.), Behavioral Aspects of Speech Technology: Theory and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 501-520. (PDF)
Hogden, J., Rubin, P. & Saltzman, E. (1996). An unsupervised method for learning to track tongue position from an acoustic signal. Bulletin Communication Parlee 3, 101-116. (PDF)
Fellowes, J. M., Remez, R. E., & Rubin, P. E. (1997). Perceiving the sex and identity of a talker without natural vocal timbre. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 839-849. (PDF)
Remez, R. E., Fellowes, J. M., & Rubin, P. E. (1997). Talker identification based on phonetic information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 651-656. (PDF)
Rubin, Philip E. and Löfqvist, Anders (1997). HADES (Haskins Analysis Display and Experiment System). Haskins Laboratories Technical Report, unpublished. (This is a long (81 pages) document in PDF format).
Vatikiotis-Bateson, E., Tiede, M. K., Rubin, P. E., & Benoît, C. (1997). Visualization of speech production: For better and for worse. In International Symposium on Simulation, Visualization and Auralization for Acoustic Research and Education - ASVA 97, 233-240. Tokyo, Japan: ASJ.
Rubin, P. & Vatikiotis-Bateson, E. (1998). Measuring and modeling speech production in humans. In S. L. Hopp & C. S. Evans (Eds.), Animal Acoustic Communication: Recent Technical Advances. Springer-Verlag, New York, 251-290. (PDF)
Yehia, H.C., Rubin, P.E., & Vatikiotis-Bateson, E. (1998). Quantitative association of vocal-tract and facial behavior. Speech Communication 26, 23-24. (PDF)
Sieber, Joan E., Plattner, Stuart, and Rubin, Philip. (2002). How (Not) to Regulate Social and Behavioral Research. Professional Ethics Report, Vol. XV, No. 2, Spr. 2002, 1-4. (PDF)
Rubin, Philip. (2002). The regulatory environment for science: Protecting participants in research. In Albert H. Teich, Stephen D. Nelson, and Stephen J. Lita (eds.), AAAS Science and Technology Policy Yearbook 2002. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., 199-206. (PDF)
Thomson, Judith Jarvis, Elgin, Catherine, Hyman, David A., Rubin, Philip E. and Knight, Jonathan. (2006). Report: Research on Human Subjects: Academic Freedom and the Institutional Review Board. Academe, Volume 92, Number 5, September-October 2006.
Goldstein, L. and Rubin, P. (2007). Speech: Dances of the Vocal Tract. Odyssey Magazine, Jan. 2007, 14-15. (PDF)
Hogden, J., Rubin, P., McDermott, E., Katagiri, S., and Goldstein, L. (2007). Inverting mappings from smooth paths through Rn to paths throughs Rm. A technique applied to recovering articulation from acoustics. Speech Communication, May 2007, Volume 49, Issue 5, 361-383.
Gordon, J. B., Levine, R. J., Mazure, C. M., Rubin, P. E., Schaller, B. R., Young, J. L. (2011). Social Contexts Influence Ethical Considerations of Research. The American Journal of Bioethics, v. 11(5), pp. 24-30. (PDF)